rom 1756 to 1781, Jacob Philadelphia performed featsof magic, sometimes under the guise of scientific exhibitions, throughoutEurope and in Russia. Modern entertainment magic owes much to Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin(1805–1871),originally a clockmaker, who opened a magic theatre in Paris in the 1840s.
The model for the look of a 'typical' magician—a man with wavy hair,a top hat,a goatee, and atailcoat—was Alexander Herrmann
Magic is the claimed art of altering things either by supernatural means or through knowledge of occult natural laws unknown toscience. Magic has been practised in all cultures, and utilizes ways of understanding, experiencing and influencing the world somewhat akin to those offered by religion,
theperformance of magic almost always involves the use of language (in Western civilization, mainly Latin). Whether spoken out loud or unspoken, words are frequently used toaccess or guide magical power.
A magician is any practitioner of magic; therefore a magician may be a specialist or a common practitioner,
Magical knowledge is usuallypassed down from one magician to another through family or apprenticeships, though in some cultures it may also be purchased.
Famous magicians of the 20th century includedOkito, Alexander, Harry Blackstone Sr., Harry Blackstone Jr., Howard Thurston, Theodore Annemann, Cardini,Joseph Dunninger, Dai Vernon, John Scarne, Tommy Wonder,Siegfried & Roy, and Doug Henning. Popular 20th and 21st century magicians include David Copperfield, Lance Burton,James Randi, Penn and Teller, David Blaine, and Criss Angel