Postoperatorio en cirugia cardiovascular

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Guidance for Control of Infections with Carbapenem-Resistant or Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Acute Care Facilities
Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as an important challenge in health-care settings (1). Currently, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is the species of CRE mostcommonly encountered in the United States. CRKP is resistant to almost all available antimicrobial agents, and infections with CRKP have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly among persons with prolonged hospitalization and those who are critically ill and exposed to invasive devices (e.g., ventilators or central venous catheters). This report provides updatedrecommendations from CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) for the control of CRE or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in acute care (inpatient) facilities. For all acute care facilities, CDC and HICPAC recommend an aggressive infection control strategy, including managing all patients with CRE using contact precautions and implementing Clinical andLaboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines for detection of carbapenemase production. In areas where CRE are not endemic, acute care facilities should 1) review microbiology records for the preceding 6--12 months to determine whether CRE have been recovered at the facility, 2) if the review finds previously unrecognized CRE, perform a point prevalence culture survey in high-risk units to lookfor other cases of CRE, and 3) perform active surveillance cultures of patients with epidemiologic links to persons from whom CRE have been recovered. In areas where CRE are endemic, an increased likelihood exists for imporation of CRE, and facilities should consider additional strategies to reduce rates of CRE (2). Acute care facilities should review these recommendations and implement appropriatestrategies to limit the spread of these pathogens.
For CRKP, the most important mechanism of resistance is the production of a carbapenemase enzyme, blakpc. The gene that encodes the blakpc enzyme is carried on a mobile piece of genetic material (transposon), which increases the risk for dissemination. Since first described in North Carolina in 1999, CRKP has been identified in 24 states and isrecovered routinely in certain hospitals in New York and New Jersey (3). Analysis of 2007 data regarding health-care--associated infections reported to CDC indicated that 8% of all Klebsiella isolates were CRKP, compared with fewer than 1% in 2000 (CDC, unpublished data, 2008). CRKP poses significant treatment challenges, and CRKP infections have been associated with increased mortality, length ofstay, and increased cost (4). The emergence and spread of CRKP and other types of CRE is another in a series of worrisome public health developments regarding antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacteria and underscores the immediate need for aggressive detection and control strategies (5).
A difficulty in detecting CRE is the fact that some strains that harbor blakpc have minimalinhibitory concentrations (MICs) that are elevated but still within the susceptible range for carbapenems. Because these strains are susceptible to carbapenems, they are not identified as potential clinical or infection control risks using current susceptibility testing guidelines. To address this challenge, in January 2009, CLSI published a recommendation that carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceaewith elevated MICs or reduced disk diffusion zone sizes be tested for the presence of carbapenemases using the modified Hodge test (MHT) (6). The MHT is a phenotypic test used to detect carbapenemases in isolates demonstrating elevated but susceptible carbapenem MICs and has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90% in identifying carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (6). If...
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