Nina Wettschureck and Stefan Offermanns
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Physiol Rev 85:1159-1204, 2005. doi:10.1152/physrev.00003.2005
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Physiological Reviews provides state of the art coverage of timely issues in the physiological and biomedical sciences. It is published quarterly in January, April, July, and October by the American Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD 20814-3991.Copyright © 2005 by the American Physiological Society. ISSN: 0031-9333, ESSN: 1522-1210. Visit our website at http://www.the-aps.org/.
Physiol Rev 85: 1159 –1204, 2005; doi:10.1152/physrev.00003.2005.
Mammalian G Proteins and Their Cell Type Speciﬁc Functions
NINA WETTSCHURECK AND STEFAN OFFERMANNS Institute of Pharmacology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
I. Introduction A. Basicprinciples of G protein-mediated signaling B. G protein -subunits and -complexes II. Cardiovascular System A. Autonomic control of heart function B. Myocardial hypertrophy C. Smooth muscle tone D. Platelet activation III. Endocrine System and Metabolism A. Hypothalamo-pituitary system B. Pancreatic -cells C. Thyroid gland/parathyroid gland D. Regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism IV.Immune System A. Leukocyte migration/homing B. Immune cell effector functions V. Nervous System A. Inhibitory modulation of synaptic transmission B. Modulation of synaptic transmission by the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway C. Roles of Gz and Golf in the nervous system VI. Sensory Systems A. Visual system B. Olfactory/pheromone system C. Gustatory system VII. Development A. G13-mediated signaling inembryonic angiogenesis B. Gq/G11-mediated signaling during embryonic myocardial growth C. Neural crest development VIII. Cell Growth and Transformation A. Constitutively active mutants of G q/G 11 family members B. The oncogenic potential of G s C. Gi-mediated cell transformation D. Cellular growth induced by G 12/G 13 IX. Concluding Remarks
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Wettschureck, Nina, and Stefan Offermanns. Mammalian G Proteins and Their Cell Type Speciﬁc Functions. Physiol Rev 85: 1159 –1204, 2005; doi:10.1152/physrev.00003.2005.—Heterotrimeric G proteins are key players intransmembrane signaling by coupling a huge variety of receptors to channel proteins, enzymes, and other effector molecules. Multiple subforms of G proteins together with receptors, effectors, and various regulatory proteins represent the components of a highly versatile signal transduction system. G protein-mediated signaling is employed by virtually all cells in the mammalian organism and is centrallyinvolved in diverse physiological functions such as perception of sensory information, modulation of synaptic transmission, hormone release and actions, regulation of cell contraction and migration, or cell growth and differentiation. In this review, some of the functions of heterotrimeric G proteins in deﬁned cells and tissues are described.
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