Rome, Greece, Mesoamerican civilizations.
Greece: The Aegean Sea became more important highway for trade. Crete developed in 6000 B.C. Asians and Egyptians also immigrated to Crete. The mayor civilization on Crete was called Minoan. The minotaour was an object of worship it was offer a human sacrifice every year until it was killed by the Greek hero Theseous. They had and underground plumbingsystem. They were the first to sail on long voyages. They had their own forms of art and architecture. Minoan women enjoyed freedom and social status equal to that of men. They played a sport called “bull dancing”. About 1900 B.C the Mycenaeans invaded the Greek peninsula. They built fortified cities. The Mycenaeans borrowed greatly from the Minoans, about 1450 B.C they destroyed other citieson Crete, but the Minoans drove them off the island.
The people in the Aegean area spoke the same language and believed in the same gods, the gods were believed to live on Mt Olympus. The city of Troy was located on the Hellespont, a channel connecting two mayor seas. Because of this it controlled the trade between the two seas. The Mycenae trade started to decline after 1300 B.C and cut tradewith Egypt,
Around 1200B.C Mycenae was driven from their cites by the Dorian people, after this, existed the so called “Dark ages of Greek history”. Trade stopped and people lived in small farming communities. Writing was lost. Then slowly the cities reunited and created the Olympics in Honor of Zeus. This time is called the Hellenic period that lasted from about 750 to 338 B.C.
Greek societywas characterized by clans ruled by a king. They founded polis, a settlement where people were safe from attack. These became city-states. By the middle of 700BC farming declined. The making of pottery, tools and weapons evolved. They needed more food so people left cities and set up colonies. This didn’t end the discontent and a number of revolutions took place in Greece, this led to democracy,which started in Athens many years later. Solon was a great magistrate in Athens that made important changes in Athens. He encouraged trade. After Solon were Pisistratus and Cleisthenes.
Sparta made the first constitution in Greece, with the purpose of keeping the military firm. They had a Council of Elders that controlled the state. Weak or deformed children were killed. Kids were taken fromfamilies at the age of 7 to take to military camps. At 20 they became soldiers. At 30 they could join the assembly, at 60 they were dismissed from the army.
The Persian Empire was the most dangerous empire. During the 4th and 5th century B.C Greeks maintained a war with them. The Greeks won the battle, after this Athens took a hold of many city-states. The economy of Athens was based on trade.Athens reached full democracy when led by Perciles. Al though the real power rest in the assembly, it made laws and decided important issues. Education was important. Parents hired tutors to educate their sons. Boys learned to play instruments like the flute. At 14 they started going to the gymnasium were they learned sports, geometry, history, astronomy and others. Women couldn’t participate inan assembly, go to school or stand out in court. But they were taught read and write at home. Athens abused of other city-states and forced to pay taxes, this brought war. Athens was defeated. War left Athens weak and divided. Philip their king was an excellent military strategist; he organized a standing army of professional soldiers. Philip was also a cruel leader. He was determined to unitethe Greeks under his rule. Philip wanted the friendship of the Greeks; he had learned to respect Greek culture.
Athens and Thebes formed an alliance to protect themselves from the Macedonian threat, they attacked Philip, but the Macedonian king destroyed the Greek army. Greek peninsula except Sparta came under Philips rule. Philip called together delegates from the major city-states. There the...
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