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Timeline: Islam in the Middle Ages
c. 570 622 630 632 632–650 Birth of Muhammad (Mohammed) in Mecca The Hijrah (Hegira) or “Flight”: Muhammad flees to Medina because of opposition in Mecca (firstyear of the Muslim calendar). Muhammad returns to Mecca and conquers the city. Mecca becomes the centre of Islam. Muhammad dies; by this time most of Arabia has become Muslim. This is the period of the“Rightly Guided Caliphs” or successors to Muhammad as rulers of the Arab empire, centred in Mecca and Medina. During this time the official text of the Koran is established in Arabic. Muslims conquerSyria (under Omar, the second caliph). Muslims conquer Persia and Jerusalem (under Omar, the second caliph). Muslims conquer Alexandria (Egypt) (under Omar, the second caliph). The Omayyad caliphs rulethe Muslim empire, centred in Damascus. Arab Muslims conquer Spain.

8.4.3 b

636 637 641 661–750 711 717–718



Muslims attempt to conquer Constantinople, capital of the ByzantineEmpire. They also advance in western Europe as far as France (Franks stop their advance). Abbasids become rulers of Muslim Empire with Baghdad as centre; the Golden Age of Islam begins. Under theAbbasid caliphates, the Muslims build the first astronomical observatory, translate ancient Greek texts into Arabic, perfect and spread the Arabic alphabet and Arab numerals, develop the astrolabe fornavigation, develop a body of Arabic literature and history, make advances in agriculture, improve water distribution, make advances in medicine and health care, develop agriculture and livestockbreeding, spread cotton from east to west. The Abbasids, although Muslim, allow freedom of religion in areas under their control. Arab Empire attacks China: Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners ofwar. Papermaking helps advance learning throughout the Arab world through books.
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Timeline: Islam in the Middle Ages
765 c. 800– 1100 A school of medicine is established in...
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