Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins
Nutrient Biotin Function
Coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids
Life Stage Group
Infants 0−6 mo 7−12 mo Children 1−3 y 4−8 y Males 9−13 y 14−18 y 19−30 y 31-50 y 50-70 y > 70 y Females 9−13 y 14−18 y 19−30 y 31-50 y 50-70 y > 70 y Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 19-30y 31-50 y Lactation ≤ 18 y 19-30y 31−50 y Infants 0−6 mo 7−12 mo Children 1−3 y 4−8 yMales 9−13 y 14−18 y 19−30 y 31-50 y 50-70 y > 70 y Females 9−13 y 14−18 y 19−30 y 31-50 y 50-70 y > 70 y Pregnancy ≤ 18 y 19-30y 31-50 y
(μg/d) 5* 6* 8* 12*
NDb ND ND ND
Selected Food Sources
Liver and smaller amounts in fruits and meats
Adverse effects of excessive consumption
No adverse effects of biotin in humans or animals were found. This does not mean that thereis no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes. Because data on the adverse effects of biotin are limited, caution may be warranted.
20* 25* 30* 30* 30* 30*
ND ND ND ND ND ND
20* 25* 30* 30* 30* 30* 30* 30* 30*
ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Precursor for acetylcholine, phospholipids and betaine
35* 35* 35* (mg/d) 125* 150*200* 250* 375* 550* 550* 550* 550* 550*
ND ND ND (mg/d) ND ND 1000 1000 2000 3000 3500 3500 3500 3500
Milk, liver, eggs, peanuts
Fishy body odor, sweating, salivation, hypotension, hepatotoxicity
Individuals with trimethylaminuria, renal disease, liver disease, depression and Parkinson’s disease, may be at risk of adverse effects with choline intakes at the UL. Although AIs have beenset for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.
375* 400* 425* 425* 425* 425*
2000 3000 3500 3500 3500 3500
450* 450* 450*
3000 3500 3500
Lactation 550* 3000 ≤ 18 y 550* 3500 19-30y 550* 3500 31−50 y NOTE:The table is adapted from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type, Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)a. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthybreastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.
a UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified,the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. b ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age groupand concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); DietaryReference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by The National Academies. All rights reserved.
Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins...
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