Desarrollo de las minicentales

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Department for International Development, UK.

BEST PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO HYDRO POWER IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
FINAL SYNTHESIS REPORT Contract R7215

Smail Khennas and Andrew Barnett
In association with London Economics & deLucia Associates, Cambridge Massachusetts, USA For The Department for International Development, UK and The World Bank
March 2000

Front pagephotograph of micro hydro penstock in Peru (ITDG E3 Peru X4.007).

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sources and Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................vii Executive Summary ................................................................................................................ix Abbreviations and Acronyms...............................................................................................xiii Units........................................................................................................................................xiv 1. INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 The Place of MicroHydro...........................................................................................1 The Differing Objectives of Micro Hydro Development............................................2 Technology Demonstration, Social Infrastructure, or Small Enterprise? ...................3 Hard Choices Have To Be Made in the Allocation of Scarce Resources ...................4 The Main Forms Of Support –Extending the Concept Of ‘Intermediation’..............5 The Importance of the Technology.............................................................................6

2. THE COST OF MICRO HYDRO AND ITS FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY...........9 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 The Cost Per Kilowatt Installed ..................................................................................9 Wide Variation inCosts ............................................................................................11 How Do the Costs of Hydro Compare with Other Options?.....................................12 Micro Hydro can be Financially Profitable...............................................................13 Cash GeneratingEnd-Uses........................................................................................15 Links To The Grid .....................................................................................................16 Making the ‘Profitable’ Social is Easier than Making the ‘Social’ Profitable! ........17

3. MEETING NEEDS AND THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF AFFORDABILITY...........19 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Price and Demand.....................................................................................................19 The Benefits and Burdens of Remoteness.................................................................20 The Case for Subsidy................................................................................................20 Limitations of Financial Analyses.............................................................................21 Filling theGap Between Full Cost Finance and Free Grants....................................21 Smarter Subsidies......................................................................................................22 The Poverty Impact of Micro Hydro.........................................................................23 Gender and Micro Hydro..........................................................................................24

4. INTERMEDIATION IN PRACTICE: EXPANDING THE USE OF MHP ...............27 4.1 Many Dimensions .....................................................................................................27 4.2 The Main Diffusion Strategies ..................................................................................28 4.3 The Key Agents Behind The ‘Strategy’...
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