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1. Grammar Translation Method
2. Who developed it: Johann Seidenstücker, Karl Plötz, H. S. Ollendorf, and Johann Meidinger.
3. Origin: It was the offspring of German scholarship, the object of witch, according to one of its less charitable critics, was “to know everything about something rather than the thing itself”.

4. Goals: Approaches the language first through detailed analysis of itsgrammar rules, followed by application is this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language.

5. Role of the Teacher: They recognized the need for speaking proficiency rather than reading comprehension, grammar, or literature appreciation as the goal of foreign language programs.

6. Role of the Student: Students labored over translating sentencesin order to produce language.

7. Characteristics of the Teaching/Learning Process: By presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercises.

8. Grammar Study: Grammar is taught deductively.

9. Nature of Teacher/Student Interaction: Teacher – Student.

10. Feelings of the Students: It often creates frustration for the students.

11. LanguageView: It hence views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language.

12. Areas Emphasized: Accuracy s emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation.

13. Skills Emphasized: Reading and writing are the major focus

14. Skills Neglected: Little orno systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.

15. Role of the Students Native Language: The student’s native language is medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the foreign language and the student’s native language.

16. Response to Error: Not mentioned.

17. Evaluation: Not mentioned.

18. Teacher’s Proficiency inthe Target Language: Highly proficient.

19. Teacher’s Knowledge of the Student’s Native Language: Proficient.

20. Would you use it? Yes Why? Because I think it is a good idea that the students base their new knowledge on their previous knowledge that is their native language.Direct Method

1. Who developed it: Frenchman F. Gouin

2. Origin: There was an interest in developing principles for language teaching out of naturalistic principles of language learning, such as is seen in first language acquisition. This led to what have been termed natural method and ultimately led to the development of what came tobe known as the Direct Method.

3. Goals: The objectives are attained through the instructional process, through the organized and direct interaction of teachers, learners, and materials in the classroom.

4. Roles of the Teacher: Some methods are totally dependent on the teacher as a source of knowledge and direction; others see the teacher’s role as catalyst, consultant, guide, and model forlearning.

5. Role of the Student: The learner is view as a processor; performer, initiator; and problem solver.

6. Characteristics of the Teaching/Learning Process:

✓ Presentation of a brief dialogue.
✓ Oral practice.
✓ Question and answers based on the topic.
✓ Study of the basic communicative expressions.
✓ Learners discovery of generalizations or rulesunderlying the functional expressions of structure.
✓ Oral recognition, interpretative procedures.
✓ Oral production activities, proceeding from guided to freer communication.

7. Grammar Study: Deductive.

8. Nature of the Teacher/Student Interaction: Teacher-Student.

9. Feelings of the Student: Not mentioned.

10. Language View: The notion of the task as a central...
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