State Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without any discrimination of any kind , irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property,disability, birth or other status.”
Article 2, Convention of the Rights of the Child
….the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity.
Preamble, Covenant on the Rights of the ChildWhat are Children’s Rights?
Children’s Rights are the freedoms and rights to which all children are entitled, and these rights serve as the building blocks of a culture of respect for all human rights. While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) guarantees the rights of all people, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is an international instrument established toaddress the specific human rights concerns of “every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier” (Article 1).
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly soon after the UN Charter was adopted in 1945. It was one of the first major achievements of the United Nations and alandmark achievement in world history.
The creation of the UDHR marked the first time that individuals’ rights and freedoms were set forth in such detail. It also represented the first international recognition that human rights and fundamental freedoms are applicable to every person, everywhere.
Today the UDHR continues to affect people’s lives, serves as a model for numerous international treatiesand declarations, and has been incorporated in the constitutions and laws of many countries. It has inspired more than sixty international human rights instruments, which together constitute a comprehensive system of legally binding treaties for the promotion and protection of human rights. UDHR is the best known and most cited human rights document in the world and is now available in more than360 languages.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, although a landmark achievement, failed to address the human rights concerns of specific marginalized and oppressed groups as well as those that needed special protection like children. As a result, a number of other human rights treaties such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Conventionon Elimination on All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have been ratified separately to help guarantee the full spectrum of rights (civil and political, as well as economic, social and cultural rights) for specific groups of people.
In 1989, world leaders decided that children need special protection. Every year millions ofchildren worldwide are subjected to violence, exploitation, trafficking, discrimination or other abuses. Millions more remain without adequate protection. Protecting children from violence, exploitation and abuse is an integral component of protecting their rights to survival, growth and development.
The CRC is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range ofchildren’s human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights---in a single text. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles which can be grouped into three broad categories:
Survival and development rights: These are rights to the resources necessary for the survival and full development of the child. They include rights to adequate food, shelter, clean water, formal...