Compensatory response (sometimes CR differs from UR). (heart rate – increased and decreased after a tone that was paired with a shock).
Lifesaver as a Scapegoat (noun. (in the Bible) a goat sent into the wilderness after theJewish chief priest had symbolically laid the sins of the people upon it (Lev. 16).
• a person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, esp. for reasons of expediency.)
* It is different to classical conditioning (for better ow worse you are exploiting a reflex, a unconditioned response, linking it with formerly neutral stimulus). Operatingconditioning is waiting for the organism to make a voluntary response –or shaping it toward that response (no reflex involved), and then rewarding that response. Operant means to operate the environment.
* -Thorndike – cat in a box with strings, levers and pullers.
(tic-tac-toe |ˈtik ˌtak ˈtō| (also tick-tack-toe) – noun - a game in which two players seek in alternate turns to completea row, a column, or a diagonal with either three O's or three X's drawn in the spaces of a grid of nine squares. GATO
Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation (Lepper, Green & Nisbelt, 1973).
parsimony |ˈpärsəˌmōnē| - noun. extreme unwillingness to spend money or use resources – Explain in the simplest way possible.
ramp up – extrapolar?
The first problems withbehaviorism is that it is not the same for all the non-human animal behavior. Example: brelands – \piggy bank (piggy bank
Noun - a container for saving money in, esp. one shaped like a pig, with a slit in the top through which coins are dropped)\, raccoon. NICHE Ecology a position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community. Such a position may be occupied by different organisms indifferent localities, e.g., antelopes in Africa and kangaroos in Australia.
verb [ trans. ] place or position (something) in a niche
Not all responses are equally conditionable to all stimuli.
Species differences ARE significant (contra skinner).
The Garcia Effect – food is very easily associated with sickness. Flavor does. Sound not. Lights not.
Fear – survival.
Evolution has created inorganisms that some associations are learned extremely easily. Biological Preparedness
Wild-reared monkeys (Rhesus monkeys) are afraid of snakes. Lab-reared monkeys are not afraid of snakes. Therefore the fear of snakes is not innate. If lab-monkeys are in contact with wild-reared monkeys they learn to fear snakes, eventhough they did not see any snake bite or anything, it is just after they sawthe other monkey reaction that they have learned.
Auditory-visual matching paradigm.
7-month children: they saw two images (one hippopotamus, one with a snake). Not a lot of differences BUT adding a fearful voice would capturate more time their gazes to the snake. Both children and adults detect threatening stimuli mroe quickly tan no-threatening.
TABULA RASA (contra Locke). The animal DONOT come to the lab as a \tabula rasa\.
Animals cannot be trained to do just anything (Brelands).
Garcia: animals come pre-wired such that certain associations are easiers to form.
The animal’s evolutionary history and ecological niche must be taken into account.
Mental maps. Tolman. Some kind of processing|transformation of the information can occur to learned info.
the rate of neuralfi ring is related to the intensity of stimulation which, in turn, is related to the magnitude of an experience such as feeling pressure on the skin or experiencing the brightness of a light.
If the amplitude of experience—our perception of a 100-watt light as brighter than a 40-watt bulb—is related to the rate of nerve fi ring, what about the quality of experience?
For the senses,...