Mexico is a representative, democratic republic conformed by thirty-two autonomous states (thirty-one states and one Federal District) regarding its internal government regime. The government system is presidential. Both the federation and each of the thirty-two states adjust to the traditional model for the division of powers and separation of functionsdivided into Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branch.
The Executive Branch of the Union is conformed by one representative, the President, who is elected by direct election and universal suffrage of all citizens to serve for a period of six years. Under no circumstance the President may be re-elected. In the thirty-one states the Executive is vested upon the Governors, and in the FederalDistrict, on the Chief of Government. They also serve a six-year term and may not be re-elected.
The Legislative Branch of the Federation is vested upon the Union Congress, formed by a Lower Chamber of 500 members and an Upper Chamber conformed by 128 members. The Legislative Branch of the thirty-two states is single chambered. It is called Local Congress in the thirty-one states and LegislativeAssembly in the Federal District. All legislatives serve for a period of three years except those of the Upper Chamber who serve for six years.
The Judicial Branch of the federation is vested upon the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, made up by eleven ministers elected by the vote of two thirds of the Upper Chamber members, based on a list put forward by the President of the Republic. TheJudicial Branch of each one of the thirty-two states is vested upon their corresponding Supreme Court of Justice.
2. Which is the distribution of competencies in electoral matter?
The distribution of competencies regarding electoral matter has two main components.
First, both the federation and the thirty-two states have their own electoral regulations, institutions, and procedures in electoralmatter; there is a clear difference and delimitation of electoral competencies between the two levels of government. Therefore, even when some common fundamentals occur, federal elections (for president, Deputies and Senators) and local elections (for governors, state legislators and municipal authorities) are separately organized and controlled.
Second, administrative (preparation, organization, andconduction of elections) and jurisdictional authorities (dispute resolutions and application of electoral justice) are clearly differentiated and conferred to different bodies at each government level. At a federal level the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) is provided with the administrative responsibility. The IFE is a public, autonomous and independent body. The Electoral Tribunal, aspecialized body of the Judicial Branch of the Federation, is provided with the jurisdictional responsibility. The Electoral Tribunal, as opposed to the IFE, is entitled to adopt resolutions in certain cases and to give final rulings on local electoral challenges.
In short, each federal state has its own administrative and legal organisms in electoral matter, as well as its own electoral calendar.Nevertheless, in some cases the federal and local elections concur (the first Sunday in July of the corresponding year).
3. Which are the principles common to all elections in Mexico?
The Constitution establishes a series of fundamental rules that must conduct all the federal as well as the local electoral processes, among which the following may be emphasized:
• Elections must be carried outthrough universal, free, secret and direct voting.
• The exercise of the electoral function must be ruled by the principles of legality, impartiality, objectivity, certainty and independency.
• The authorities in charge of the administrative and legal functions in electoral matters must be autonomous in their performance and independent in their decisions.
• According to the...