Gerunds are constructed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the suffix –ing.
Gerunds are used in a variety of situations, such as:
•Followingphrasal verbs and prepositions.
◦I learned guitar by watching my brother play.
◦My mom wants to give up smoking.
Remember that phrasal verbs are those that are combined witha preposition, such as keep on, set up, ask for, come on, etc.
•Following other verbs, as the object of said verb.
◦Julia loves running.
•As the subject of asentence.
◦Learning another language is useful.
To construct the negative form of a sentence using a gerund, you simply add not to the gerund.
•Not studying usually resultsin a bad grade.
On the other hand, infinitives use the base form of the verb.
Infinitives are also used in several situations:
Infinitives are also used in severalsituations:
•Placing them after some verbs.
◦Jaime has agreed to study harder.
•As a way of expressing reason or purpose.
◦Mariana is going to Jaime’s house to help himwith his homework.
Gerund forms of the verb are frequently used after certain expressions.
Common expressions followed by a gerund include:
•Be interested in.◦Jaime is interested in running for class president.
◦Mariana has trouble driving when it rains.
◦Elisa can’t stand listening to sad music.•Be happy about.
◦Pablo was not happy about flunking math.
•Look forward to.
◦Alicia is looking forward to going out with Martin.
•Have a good time
◦We had a goodtime going to the beach.
◦Pedro has fun playing with his computer on weekends.
•Spend one’s time.
◦Alicia spends a lot of time talking on the phone